Locke and Latham’s (2002) review of the
goal-setting research suggest the following
and Latham (2002) for theoretical models that describe the
hypothesized relations between assigned goals, self- set goals,
self-efficacy, and performance, and the essential elements of
Goal-Setting Theory and a “high performance
and difficult goals lead to higher performance than do simple
admonitions to students to “do their best.”
Research suggests that “do-your-best” goals have
“no external referent and thus are defined idiosyncratically.
This allows for a wide range of acceptable performance levels,
which is not the case when a goal level is specified” (Locke
& Latham, 2002, p. 706).
setting is a key variable in self-regulated
set, or endorsed by a student, are hypothesized to play an
important role in the student’s subsequent satisfaction or
dissatisfaction vis-à-vis the provision of a criterion point
for the performance standard.
academic goals are a necessary but insufficient condition for
maintaining effort. Students need formative and summative
feedback on their progress toward goals. Consistent feedback
allows students the opportunity to adjust their strategies and/or
the direction or level of their effort.