3.2.1 "Synchronized" (tapping) tasks
Tapping in synchrony with isochronous sequences of identical clicks or tones has been studied extensively, and it is well known that on-beat (or in-phase) tapping, where the taps approximately coincide with tone onsets, is easier than off-beat (syncopated, anti-phase) tapping, where the taps fall between tone onsets (Engström, Kelso, & Holroyd, 1996; Fraisse & Ehrlich, 1955; Kelso, DelColle, & Schöner, 1990; Pressing, 1998; Volman & Geuze, 2000). When the sequence rate is fast, off-beat tapping is often observed to switch involuntarily to on-  beat tapping. However, the maximal rates up to which off-beat synchronization can be maintained
An alternative method to perceptual tasks for studying musical rhythm and meter is to ask participants to produce finger movements in synchrony with the perceived pulse (e.g., Drake, Jones, & Baruch, 2000; Drake, Penel, & Bigand, 2000; Large, Fink, & Kelso, 2002; Repp, 1999a, 1999b; Snyder & Krumhansl, 2001; Toiviainen & Snyder, 2003; van Noorden & Moelants, 1999; Vos, Van Dijk, & Schomaker, 1994). The basic logic behind tapping tasks is that the accuracy (e.g., mean distance of taps from the beat) and precision (e.g., variability of tap position relative to the beat) of finger movements should reflect difficulty in the processing of rhythmic and metrical structures.