Correlation and score comparison studies
Bold font designates new information (02-01-08) since last revision.
Almeida, D. C. (2003). Predicting academic aptitude for a high school learning- disabled sample. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, 64(5-B), 2412.

Abstract: The current archival study examined the ability of earlier Woodcock Johnson Revised achievement scores and/or Wechsler Intelligence scores in predicting scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) performance in the 12th grade for a learning disabled sample. Subjects included 69 public high school classified students from the suburban upper- middle class Westchester area. Criteria for consideration of inclusion in the study were: graduation from the special education program between 1998-2002, WISC-III, WJ-R, WAIS-III and SAT test scores. The study was designed to evaluate the predictive utility of various patterns of performance already tenuously established for students with learning difficulties. These patterns include ACID, SCAD and Verbal < Performance splits. This study utilized a regression model to predict performance on the SAT. It was determined whether or not a student underachieved on the SAT. Performance on the WISC-III and WAIS- III were evaluated to determine if patterns existed and to determine, if such patterns predicted under- achievement on the SAT. Changes in performance from the WISC-III to the WAIS-III that predicted performance on SAT were also examined. The results of this study provided a prediction model for school psychologists working with learning disabled students, which may assist in predicting which Learning Disabled students may not perform well on the SAT. Such insight may generate more effective programming for special education students. Implications for school psychologists and suggestions for further research were also discussed
Anjum, A. (2005).  The relationship between the Differential Ability Scales and the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities for children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Dissertation Abstracts International, 65(9 ), 4859.

Abstract: Psychologists and other professionals often assess students who exhibit symptoms of overactivity, impulsive behavior and attention/concentration difficulties. Clinicians who assess similar cognitive and perceptual processes of such youngsters may sometimes get very conflicting results on the tests, which purport to measure similar skills. These differences could be a consequence of student variables, examiner- examinee variables, examiner differences, differences in psychometric properties of the tests, differences in task demands, or the difference in the content being tapped by the two tests. The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of two intelligence measures the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ III) and the Differential Ability Scales (DAS) for use with children diagnosed with ADHD, and to explore the amount of overlap or differences between the similar broad cognitive abilities assessed by both tests. These two tests were administered to twenty-  seven children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. The results from the present sample found the General Intellectual Ability (GIA) of the WJ III, the General Conceptual Ability (GCA) of the DAS, and the cluster scores from both the tests to be in the Average range. After controlling for the Flynn Effect, no significant differences were found between the respective global Full Scale scores and the related cluster scores of the two tests. The WJ III and the DAS associated moderately high, sharing 60% variance. Moderate to moderately high correlations were found between the related constructs, and moderate to moderately low correlations were found between the related subtests of the two tests were found. Implications of these findings and future avenues for research investigating cognitive abilities in children diagnosed with ADHD are discussed.
Ardoin, S. P. , Witt, J. C., Suldo, S. M., Connell, J. E., Koenig, J. L., Resetar, J. L. S. N. J., & Williams, K. L. (2004). Examining the Incremental Benefits of Administering a Maze and Three Versus One Curriculum-Based Measurement Reading Probes When Conducting Universal Screening. School Psychology Review, 33(2), 218- 233.

Abstract:  A primary problem with special education placement is that it is a solution that comes too late for children who are first noticed by their kindergarten teachers as lacking prerequisite skills. It is of critical importance that these students, whose reading skills are low in comparison to their peers, be accurately identified through universal screenings and be provided with intervention. Most universal screening models suggest the use of curriculum-based measurement (CBM). In the current study, 77 third grade students were administered four CBM reading probes, a maze, a group-  administered standardized achievement test, and reading subtests of the Woodcock- Johnson-III. Analyses were conducted to evaluate whether it is necessary to administer three rather than only one CBM reading probe, the contribution of administering a maze in addition to CBM, and the predictive validity of CBM versus a group- administered standardized achievement test.
Bell, N. L., Rucker, M., Finch, A., & Alexander, J. (2002). Concurrent validity of the Slosson Full- Range Intelligence Test: Comparison with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-- Third Edition and the Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement-- Revised. Psychology in the Schools, 39(1), 31-38.

Abstract: This study examined the concurrent validity of the Slosson Full-Range Intelligence Test (S-   FRIT) by comparing S-   FRIT scores tot he scores of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children- Third Edition (WISC- III) and the Woodcock- Johnson Tests of Achievement- Revised (WJ- R). Data from 123 elementary students' screening and psychological testing results were examined. Results revealed that the S-FRIT scores were more related to overall intelligence, verbal, and math abilities than nonverbal intelligence, reading, or written language abilities. Further, it was found that 89% of the participants' S- FRIT full- range IQ scores fell within one standard deviation of their WISC- III FSIQ scores, with an average discrepancy of 7.6 points. Discrepancies between S- FRIT and WISC-  III scores were also examined by educational diagnostic categories and ability levels. Limitations and suggestions for future research are provided.
Botana, S. M.  (2001). A native (Spanish) language assessment of intelligence and its role in the special education case study evaluation of limited English proficient students.Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences, 62((1-A)), 74.

Abstract: In the case study evaluation of limited English proficient students, best practice recommendations call for a bilingual evaluator. Empirical studies designed to examine the results of these bilingual evaluations are also recommended. In this dissertation research study 198 school- age Hispanic LEP students were referred for a case study evaluation by their classroom teachers. These students were administered a mixed language, translated, adapted version of the WISC-III (unpublished Kowsky version of the WISC-III), the Woodcock- Munoz Language Survey in Spanish and English, and the Woodcock- Johnson and Woodcock- Munoz Academic Achievement tests by a state certified bilingual special education school psychologist who embodied the "best practice" recommendations described in the literature. Student performance was represented using a series of Pearson correlations, the results of an exploratory factor analysis performed on the data set, and the results of a multivariate analysis of covariance in an effort to describe student profiles on all measures. Significant group differences in performance across all measures were documented suggesting that these bilingual assessments are useful in distinguishing the disabled from the nondisabled, and those with average ability from those with significant mental impairments in a referred for special education population. Descriptive statistics related to the unpublished Kowsky version of the WISC- III, indicated significantly below average Verbal IQ scores and low average range Performance IQ scores for the Learning Disabled participants, Speech and Language Impaired participants, and Not Eligible for Special Education participants. The Educable Mentally Handicapped participants had a flat profile with both Verbal IQ and Performance IQ scores in the 50- 65 point range. The mean point difference between the Verbal IQ and the Performance IQ scales for the whole group was 12.3 (SD 12.15) and 17.2 (SD 13.05) for the Learning Disability group. Subtest score analyses for all groups indicated that the Vocabulary subtest received the lowest scaled score and the Coding subtest received the highest scaled score. Exploratory factor analysis on the Kowsky version of the WISC-III yielded a unique three- factor structure. Empirically-  based student profiles were described and recommendations for interpreting data obtained during a bilingual evaluation were offered.
Breslau, N., Johnson, E. O., & Lucia, V. C. (2001). Academic achievement of low birthweight children at age 11: The role of cognitive abilities at school entry. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29(4), 273- 279.  (click to view)
Carper, M. S. (2003). A concurrent validity study comparing executive functioning of the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of cognitive ability and the NEPSY. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, 64(3-B), 1516.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the concurrent validity between the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Ability (WJ III COG; Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001) executive functioning tests and theNEPSY (Korkman, Kirk, & Kemp, 1998) executive functioning tests within the same population sample of nondisabled children. The tests of the WJ III COG that are executive functioning tests are Concept Formation, Planning, and Pair Cancellation. On the NEPSY the tests that make up executive functioning are Tower and Design Fluency. A total of 60 participants (30 females and 30 males) were recruited to participate in this study. Participants completed an IQ screener to ensure intellectual functioning scores were 80 or above. Parents provided background information, providing pertinent medical and emotional information to rule out health and other behavioral influences, as well as assuring that children were currently passing all subjects in school. Participants additionally completed the executive functioning tests comprising the WJ III COG and NEPSY. Results indicated: no significant differences for mean standard scores of the WJ III COG and NEPSY based on age or on sex; although, there were significant correlations within tests of the WJ III COG and NEPSY Design Fluency test; no significant correlations found with any WJ III COG tests and NEPSY Tower test; and WJ III COG and NEPSY correlations did not vary by sex or by age. Implications of this study indicate that the WJ III COG and NEPSY provide a time- and cost- effective means for comprehensive assessment of executive functions and may enhance educational plan development within the school setting. Careful study of the referral information, as well as, the types of tasks that encompass the executive functioning concept believed to be at deficit will drive the test selection. This study has also provided research data on the WJ III COG and NEPSY in the area of executive functioning in which few studies were found to exist.
Daleiden, E. , Drabman, R. S., & Benton, J. (2002). The Guide to the Assessment of Test Session Behavior: Validity in relation to cognitive testing and parent-reported behavior problems in a clinical sample. Journal of Clinical Child &Adolescent Psychology, 31(2), 263- 271.(click to view)

Abstract: Examined the validity of the Guide to Assessment of Test Session Behavior (GATSB) in a clinical sample. The purpose of this study was to extend validity research on the GATSB to cognitive measures other than the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children -  IIIrd Edition (WISC-- III) and to parent- reported child behavior problems. Test observations were taken for 122 children (aged 6-16 yrs) who were referred to an outpatient psychology clinic for psychoeducational evaluations. GATSB scores demonstrated a moderate relation with general indexes from the WISC- III, the Woodcock- Johnson Psychoeducational Battery- - Revised, and the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, but displayed low magnitude correlations with the Child Behavior Checklist. These results expand existing data supporting the validity of the GATSB and suggest that it may be adopted into a clinic setting.
Duncan, J., & Rafter, E. M. (2005). Concurrent and predictive validity of the Phelps Kindergarten Readiness Scale-      II. Psychology in the Schools,42(4), 355-259.(click to view)
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to establish the concurrent and predictive validity of the Phelps Kindergarten Readiness Scale, Second Edition (PKRS- II; L. Phelps, 2003). Seventy- four kindergarten students of diverse ethnic backgrounds enrolled in a northeastern suburban school participated in the study. The concurrent administration of the PKRS-II and the Woodcock- Johnson III Brief Intellectual Ability Scale (R.W.Woodcock, K.S. McGrew, & N. Mather, 2001a) occurred in the fall of the kindergarten year. To assess predictive validity, theWoodcock Johnson III Tests of Achievement (R.W. Woodcock, K.S. McGrew, & N. Mather, 2001b) was administered in the spring of that year. All concurrent and predictive correlations were significant. Based on the results of this study, the PKRS-II may be used with confidence to screen for children who may be at risk for academic difficulties.
Dumont, R. Willis, J. O.,  Farr, L. P., Mccarthy, T. &  Price, L. (2000).  The Relationship between the Differential Ability Scales (DAS) and the Woodcock- Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability- Revised (WJ-R COG) for Students Referred for Special Education Evaluations.  Journal Of Psychoeducational Assessment,18(1), 27- 38.(click to view)
Abstract.  The Differential Ability Scales (DAS) and the Woodcock- Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability- Revised (WJ-    R COG standard battery) were administered to 81 children referred for special education services evaluation. Both the General Conceptual Ability (GCA) and the Nonverbal Reasoning scores of the DAS were significantly lower than the WJ- R COG Broad Cognitive Ability- Standard score (BCA-STD). The DAS Verbal and Spatial Composite scores were not significantly different from the BCA-STD. Low to moderate correlations were found between related constructs on the two tests.
Elliott, J., Lee, S. W., & Tollefson, N. (2001). A reliability and validity study of the dynamic indicators of basic early literacy skills- modified. School Psychology Review, 30(1), 33- 49. (click to view)
Abstract. This study examined the psychometric properties of a set of preliteracy measures modified from the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) with a sample of 75 kindergarten students. The modified battery (called DIBELS-M) includes measures of Letter Naming Fluency, Sound Naming Fluency, Initial Phoneme Ability, and Phonemic Segmentation Ability. These measures were assessed through repeated administrations in 2-week intervals at the end of the kindergarten year. Interrater reliability estimates and coefficients of stability and equivalence for three of the measures ranged from .80 to the mid .90s with about one- half of the coefficients above .90. Correlations between DIBELS-M scores and criterion measures of phonological awareness, standardized achievement measures, and teacher ratings of achievement yielded concurrent validity coefficients ranging from .60 to .70. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the four DIBELS- M measures accounted for 73% of the variance in scores on the Skills Cluster of the Woodcock- Johnson Psychoeducational Battery-- Revised (WJ- R). The results of the analysis support the use of the DIBELS-M measures for identification of kindergarten students who are at- risk for reading failure and for progress monitoring. The contributions of the study, including psychometric analysis of the DIBELS-M with a new sample and formation of composite scores, are discussed in relation to the extant literature.
Erford, B. T., & Dutton, J. L. (2005). Technical Analysis of the Slosson Phonics and Structural Analysis Test.Educational and Psychological Measuremen2005, 65(6), 1011- 1025. (click to view)
Abstract.  Technical characteristics of Slosson Phonics and Structural Analysis Test (SP- SAT) scores were studied using three independent samples of boys and girls aged 6 years, 6 months, through 9 years, 11 months. A decision efficiency study (n = 100) resulted in a total predictive value of .86 (sensitivity = .95, specificity = .77, positive predictive power = .80, negative predictive power = .94). Item difficultywas .65 (median), and item discrimination was .52 (median). Interitem consistency was r = .93, .93, and .96 for scores on the Phonics Index, Structural Analysis Index, and SP-SAT total standard score, respectively (n = 375), whereas 2- week test-retest reliability was r = .90, .88, and .90 for scores on the same scales, respectively (n = 165). The SP-SAT yielded moderate to high concurrent validity coefficients when compared with the Wide- Range Achievement Test–Third Edition Reading subtest; Woodcock-Johnson: Tests of Achievement–Third Edition Letter- Word Identification,Word Attack, Passage Comprehension, and Writing Samples subtests; and Woodcock- Johnson: Tests of Achievement–Revised Dictation subtest. Practice and research implications are discussed.
Feldmann, G. M., Kelly, R. M., & Diehl, V. A. (2004). An interpretative analysis of five commonly used processing speed measures. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 22(2), 151- 163.(click to view)
Abstract.  Processing speed subtests are components of Revised (Woodcock & Johnson, 1989), and widely used intellectual assessment insuu- Speed of Information Processing from the men-. Many researchers interpret these me% Differential Ability Scales (Elliott, 1990) were ures as assessing a unitary construct, hut there administered to 102 volunteer participants. is a question concerning the constructs. Using regression analyses, performance on assessed by these measures and, ultimately, each of these tests was predicted by motor their interpretative utility. Coding and Symbol speed and/or number facility factors. Search from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale Individual differences in motor speed were for Children-    Third Edition (Wechsler, 1991), found to he related to each of the five process Visual Matching and Cross Out from the ing speed measures, whereas number facility Woodcock Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability- was related to three of the measures.
Foley, D. R.  (2004). Relationships among cognitive abilities, vocational aptitudes and vocational interests in at- risk eighth graders. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences, 65(1-A), 67.

Abstract: Relative to instrument choice and target population, this study was the first empirical attempt to explore the relationships among Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) cognitive abilities, as measured by Woodcock-   Johnson, Third Edition (WJ- III COG) and vocational aptitudes and interests, as measured by the Occupational Aptitude Survey and Interest Schedule-2 (OASIS-2 AS) and the Career Decision Making System- R, Level One (CDM-R), respectively, of at-risk adolescents prior to their entrance into high school. The sample included 169 eighth graders. Roughly 66% were male and 47% were members of ethnic minority groups. Pearson correlations revealed many significant pair- wise relationships among the three constructs; however, most were small (r le; .29) and of limited usefulness. Consistent with the literature, moderate to strong relationships (.31 le; r le; .53) were found between General Intellectual Ability (g) and Comprehension- Knowledge (Gc) and General and Verbal Aptitudes, between Visual Processing (Gv) and Spatial Aptitude, and between Processing Speed (Gs) and Perceptual Aptitude. Previously unreported relationships (.29 le; 5 r le; .50) were found between (g) and Spatial and Perceptual Aptitudes, between Fluid Reasoning (Gf) and General, Verbal and Spatial Aptitudes, and between Long- Term Retrieval (Glr) and Verbal Aptitude. Multiple regression analyses revealed that cognitive abilities together accounted for the greatest variance in General and Verbal Aptitude scores; however, only 24% and 28%, respectively. Cognitive abilities and aptitudes together accounted for only small percentages of the variances in Crafts (10%), Scientific (7%) and Social (14%) interest scores. Sex was a significant predictor of Crafts and Social interests. No single cognitive or aptitude factor was found to be a significant predictor of Scientific interests. Consistent with the literature, the results of this study indicated that vocational aptitudes scores cannot be adequately predicted from intelligence test scores, and that vocational interests are largely unrelated to cognitive abilities and vocational aptitudes. In order to measures these three constructs reliably and validly, they must be measured directly. Although characteristics of the sample and the aptitude and interest tests limit their generalizability, the results of this study supported the need for similar studies using CHC theory as a foundation.
Floyd, R. G., Bergeron, R., McCormack, A. C., Anderson, J. L., & HargroveOwens, G. L. (2005). Are Cattell- Horn-Carroll broad ability composite scores exchangeable across batteries?School Psychology Review, 34(3), 329-357. (click to view)
Abstract. Many school psychologists use the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities to guide their interpretation of scores from intelligence test batteries. Some may frequently assume that composite scores purported to measure the same CHC broad abilities should be relatively similar for individuals no matter what subtests or batteries were administered to obtain these scores. This study examined this assumption using six samples of preschool children, school- age children, or adults who completed two or more intelligence test batteries. From these samples, composites measuring the broad abilities Crystallized Intelligence, Visual Processing, Fluid Reasoning, and Processing Speed were compared to examine their exchangeability. Results indicate that most CHC broad ability composites produced scores that were not as exchangeable for individuals as may have been assumed by some. Discussion focuses on the influence of score reliability and on the interaction between examinee characteristics and the tasks used to measure the broad abilities.
Floyd, R., McCormack, A., Ingram, E, Davis, A &Bergeron, R (2006).  Relations Between the Woodcock- Johnson III Clinical Clusters and Measures of Executive Functions From the Delis- Kaplan Executive Function System. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 24 (4), 303- 317(click to view)
Abstract.  This study examined the convergent relations between scores from four clinical clusters from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ III) and measures of executive functions using a sample of school-aged children and a sample of adults. The WJ III clinical clusters included the Working Memory, Cognitive Fluency, Broad Attention, and Executive Processes clusters, and the measures of executive functions were from the Delis-  Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS). Across both samples, all clinical clusters demonstrated evidence of statistically significant and moderate positive relations with at least some measures of executive functions. The Executive Processes cluster demonstrated relations with measures of executive functions that tended to be the strongest and most consistent of the WJ III clinical clusters. When these relations between the clinical clusters and the measures of executive functions were contrasted with the relations between the WJ III Comprehension- Knowledge cluster and the same measures of executive functions, results called into question the distinction between process and content but suggested that there is a common ability or common abilities underlying performance across all of the WJ III and D-KEFS measures.
Ganga, V. (2005).  Adolescents with low academic intrinsic motivation: Relation to educational performance.Dissertation Abstracts International, 43(1), 328.

Abstract: The construct of low academic intrinsic motivation was examined in a longitudinal investigation. Children with low academic intrinsic motivation were compared with their cohort peers in the subject areas of reading and math. Students with the lowest motivation in reading and math were compared on two outcome measures, The Woodcock Johnson Psychoeducational Battery and Scholastic Aptitude Test scores to test the generality. Repeated measures ANOVA and t- tests revealed that students with low academic intrinsic motivation scored significantly lower on the outcome measures than their cohort peer comparison.
Hanzel, E. P. (2003). Assessment of cognitive abilities in high-functioning children with autistic disorder: A comparison of the WISC-III and Leiter-R. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, 64(3-B), 1492.

Abstract: This study extends present research on the assessment of intellectual functioning and patterns in cognitive abilities in individuals with high-functioning autistic disorder (AD- HF). This is the first study to examine the validity of the recent revision of the Leiter International Performance Scale (Leiter-R) when used to assess individuals with autistic disorder. This study further explored the patterns of strengths and weaknesses of cognitive functioning in children with autism based on the nonverbal ability factors of fluid reasoning and broad visualization from the Horn- Cattell theory of intelligence. Twenty children with AD-  HF matched on age and gender to twenty normal control children were the participants. The dependent variables consisted of each child's scores on the following measures: the Visualization and Reasoning battery of the Leiter- R, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Third Edition (WISC-III), the Nonverbal Reasoning factor of the Differential Abilities Scale (DAS), and the Visual Processing factor of the Woodcock-Johnson - Revised Cognitive Battery (WJ-R). A supplemental analysis of the relationship of adaptive functioning to intellectual abilities was also performed using the Scale of Independent Behavior - Revised (SIB- R) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. There was mixed evidence of the validity of the Leiter- R in the assessment of children with autistic disorder. Comparisons of the Leiter-R Full Scale, Fluid Reasoning factor and Visualization factor scores all showed high correlations to their corresponding ability measures on the WISC- III, DAS, and WJ- R, indicating that he factor scores on the Leiter-R do indeed measure fluid reasoning (Gf) and visualization (Gv). However, since there were also strong correlations of the Gf and Gv factors to each other, the validity evidence indicates a broader construct may being measured that encompasses both fluid reasoning (Gf) and visualization (Gv). The Fluid Reasoning score of the Leiter-R correlated slightly higher to the Full Scale and Verbal scores of the WISC-III than the Leiter-R Full Scale score, indicating it may be an even more reliable measure of general intellectual functioning than the Leiter-  R Full Scale score. The results of this study also show an overall balance in the fluid reasoning and visualization abilities in children with AD- HF. Though higher visualization scores than fluid reasoning scores were predicted for the children with AD- HF, this study indicates that they do not have isolated visual-    spatial skills, stimuli. The results also indicated that the adaptive functioning of children with AD-HF is more consistent with their verbal skills than their nonverbal abilities. The overall findings of this study indicate that the Leiter-R is a valid measure of general intellectual functioning, fluid reasoning and visualization in children with AD-HF. This study further shows that, though children with AD-HF may have strong visual- spatial abilities, they can also possess similar
Hargrave, J. L. (2005). The relationship between executive functions and broad written language skills in students ages 12 to 14 years old. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, 65(8-B), 4320. (click to view)

Abstract: The purpose of this investigation was to explore the relationship between executive functions and written language skills. Five hundred and forty- three students between the ages 12 and 14 were administered the Planning, Retrieval Fluency, Pair Cancellation, and Number Reversal subtests from the Woodcock- Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities - Third Edition (WJIII; Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001a) and the subtests included under the Broad Written Language cluster of the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement - Third Edition (WJIII; Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001b). The sample was taken from the larger sample used to norm the WJIII tests. Relationships were explored between the executive function subtest scores and Broad Written Language scores and were found to be significantly correlated. The four executive function measures and gender were entered simultaneously into a multiple regression equation and found to significantly predict Broad Written Language scores. Further examination revealed that all the composites with the exception of the Planning subtest significantly predicted Broad Written Language skills. Subtests measuring the executive functions working memory and attention (Number Reversal and Pair Cancellation) were the most significant contributors when the composite scores were examined. Results provide researchers with a foundation to further investigate the underlying executive functions that may help or hinder students' ability to produce quality written products and eventually design intervention studies based on areas of executive functioning. Limitations of the study are presented as well as implications for research and practice and directions for future research.
Hawkins, B. A., Eklund, S. J., James, D. R., & Foose, A. K. (2003). Adaptive behavior and cognitive function of adults with Down syndrome: Modeling change with age. Mental Retardation, 41(1), 7-28 (click to view)
Abstract.  Fifty-eight adults with Down syndrome (ages 31 to 56 years at time of first testing, mean age, 43.5) were assessed longitudinally over 10 years for the purpose of modeling aging- related change in cognitive function and adaptive behavior. Cognitive function was assessed seven times using the Woodcock- Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability- Revised Early Development Battery. Adaptive behavior was evaluated five times using the Inventory for Client and Agency Planning. Multi-  level (hierarchical linear) modeling procedures were used to model change with age. Findings provided further evidence of changes in performance with age and included selected effects for participants who completed the 10 years of study and those who were lost to follow-up as well as for age cohorts.
Hills, K. J. (2005).  An evaluation of universal screening measures in reading. Dissertation Abstracts International, 66(4), 2336.

Abstract: New federal initiatives and reports are calling attention to the importance of conducting universal screenings in the initial years of students' schooling and providing early intervention to students whose performance is discrepant from their peers. The current identification system of teacher referral and special education evaluation using an Intra- Individual Achievement Discrepancy (IAD) model is not an effective means of early identification. Because a significant discrepancy is needed between student's ability (IQ) and achievement scores, the IAD model rarely is able to identify students early in their academic career when intervention would be most effective so instead students must &ldquo;wait to fail.&rdquo; Identifying efficient and valid universal screening measures is thus a critical issue in education. The primary purpose of the current study was to evaluate the validity of RR and R-   CBM, two different universal screening measures, by examining each measures' relationship to students overall reading achievement as measured by the Woodcock Johnson- III  reading subtests (Woodcock, McGrew, &amp; Mather, 2001) after accounting for intelligence, age, and grade. In addition, the current study evaluated the differences between using challenging versus similar level R- CBM probes for universal screening. Finally, the present study extends previous research in the area of teacher ratings by comparing the precision of teacher judgments of accuracy versus fluency on both R-CBM and RR measures. Overall results indicated that both R- CBM and RR significantly related to students' overall reading achievement as indicated by the WJ- III While both R- CBM and RR accounted for a significant amount of variance in students' reading achievement, R-CBM was a stronger predictor of reading achievement. Comparisons of similar versus challenging R-CBM passages indicated no significant differences between passages' relationship with reading achievement. Finally, analyses of teacher ratings indicated that teachers may be able to recognize relative differences in level of performance across studen’ts, however, they tend to be less accurate at predicting specific levels of student oral reading fluency.
Huff, E., Sorenson, J., & Dancer, J. (2002). Relation of reading rate and rapid automatic naming among third graders.Perceptual Motor Skills, 95(3 Pt 1), 925-926.(click to view)
Abstract.  The relation of reading rate and rapid automatic naming (RAN) for pictures was investigated for 31 third graders. Reading rate was measured as the number of seconds required for reading aloud a third-   grade passage. Rapid automatic naming was assessed with the RAN portion of the Woodcock Johnson I11 Tests of Cognitive Abilities. A moderate correlation of -.61 between the sets of scores suggests RAN assessment may be useful in screening for reading deficits in third- grade children.
Jones, W., Loe, S., Krach, K., Rager, R. & Jones, H. (2008).  Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) and Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Ability:  A concurrent valildity study.  The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 22, 305–320.  (click to view)
This study examines the relationship between a computerized neuropsychological assessment battery, the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics (ANAM) and a widely used ability measure, Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Ability (WJ-III). Results indicated substantial relationship between the ANAM throughput (accuracy /response time) scores and the WJ-III Cognitive Efficiency cluster. An unexpectedly strong relationship was evident between accuracy scores on the ANAM Logical Reasoning scale and the WJ-III General Intellectual Ability score, purporting to measure the g factor. The findings support the viability of the ANAM as a time- and cost-effective tool for appraisal of cognitive function.
Joseph, L. M., McCachran, M. E., & Naglieri, J. A. (2003). PASS cognitive processes, phonological processes, and basic reading perrformance for a sample of referred primary- grade children. Journal of Research in Reading, 26(3), 304-  314. (click to view)
Abstract. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among cognitive processing, phonological processing and basic reading skill performance. Cognitive theorists propose that Planning, Attention, Simultaneous and Successive (PASS) processes are related to various phonological skills. A sample of 62 Primary Grade children referred for reading problems were administered measures of cognitive processes (Cognitive Assessment System), phonological processes (Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing) and basic reading achievement (Woodcock-   Johnson Tests of Academic Achievement- III). Findings indicated that some cognitive processes were significantly related to phonological processes as well as basic reading skills. The strongest relationships were found between phonological memory and successive processes and between phonological awareness and basic reading performance.
Kenney, K. M. (2002). Parental acculturation and child language preference as predictors of cognitive ability and academic achievement in Asian-American children. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, 62((8- B)), 3843.

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships among parental acculturation and language preference in Asian-American children and scores on tests of cognitive ability and academic achievement. This study used the Suinn- Lew Asian Self- Identity Scale (SL-ASIA) to quantify five possible levels of acculturation in the child's parents. The Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanic Youth (SASH-Y) was adapted for Asian- Americans and was used to assess the child's language preference. Cognitive ability was measured using the Stanford Binet: Fourth Edition (SB:FE). Academic achievement was measured by the Woodcock-Johnson Revised. Participants were one- hundred-forty-eight Asian- American students (ages 5 to 6 years) who completed the cognitive, achievement, and language preference tests. One parent of each child completed the SL-  ASIA. The children were administered the adapted version of the Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanic Youth (SASH-Y) for Asians. Results indicated that parental acculturation had a positive correlation with reported language preference in that parents who were highly "Western Identified" had children who expressed preferences for the use of English in multiple contexts. Parental acculturation also had positive correlations with the Broad Knowledge Cluster of the Woodcock Johnson- Revised. A partial correlation was conducted to show a nonsignificant correlation between parental acculturation and scores on the Stanford Binet: Fourth Edition and Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement when child language preference is held constant. Results only confirmed these hypothesis on scores that loaded for crystallized intelligence (Gc) such as the Verbal Reasoning Factor of the Stanford Binet: Fourth Edition, the Broad Knowledge Cluster of the Woodcock Johnson- Revised, as well as the mean of the Broad Knowledge and Skills Clusters. The implications of evaluating language preference/proficiency in psychoeducational assessments are discussed. The use of the English language in multiple contexts among culturally diverse children can be a powerful indicator of overall functioning. Greater awareness of language preference can be important for clinicians evaluating culturally diverse children and for parents who often dictate the level of acculturation for their children. The importance of evaluating language as the primary medium of acculturation is discussed. Behavioral definitions of acculturation as opposed to those that are more value-    oriented are delineated.
Lee, E., Murry, V. M., Brody, G., & Parker, V. (2002). Maternal resources, parenting, and dietary patterns among rural African American children in single-parent families.Public Health Nursing, 19(2), 104- 111.(click to view)

Abstract: Tested 2 hypotheses: (1) that maternal education, perceived family resources, and the importance of family routines would be related to children's dietary patterns and (2) that dietary patterns would be associated with children's cognitive and physical abilities. 159 African American single-mother families with a child (6-9 yrs) living in rural areas, most of whom lived in poverty. Children's eating patterns were assessed using a selfreport questionnaire administered to the mother in an interview. Children's cognitive ability was measured by the Woodcock Johnson Psycho- Educational Instrument and the Harter Perceived Competence Scale for Children. For male children, the mother's higher education was related to more adequate eating patterns at home, and more perceived family resources were related to the likelihood of taking vitamin supplements. For female children, greater milk intake was positively related to cognitive outcomes, including applied problem, passage comprehension, calculation, synonym identification, antonym identification, and quantitative concept scores. Milk intake was related to more optimal cognitive development. The results of this study support the literature related to the importance of nutrition for cognitive and physical abilities in children.
Leverett, P. J., Lassiter, K. S., & Buchanan, G. M. (2002). Correlations for the Stroop Color and Word Test with measures of reading and language achievement. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 94, 459-466.
Lewandowski, L. J., Codding, R. S., Kleinmann, A. E., &Tucker, K. L. (2003). Assessment of reading rate in postsecondary students. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 21(2), 134-  144. (click to view)
Abstract.  There has been a steady increase in students with disabilities attending college and making requests for test accommodations. Most requests are for extended time, presumably due to slow reading speed. Tests of reading rate for adults have been criticized for poor psychometric adequacy, and no current norms exist regarding the expected reading rate for college students. This study examined reading rate via two methods, as well as their relationship to other reading measures. Ninety typical college students (67% female) were administered the Nelson Denny Reading Test (Reading Rate [NDRR] and Comprehension [NDC] tests), the Woodcock Johnson-III Reading Fluency (RF) and Word Attack (WA) tests, and three oral reading probes used to obtain words read correctly per minute (WRCM). On average, college students read 189 words correctly per minute based on oral reading probes and 231 wpm based on NDRR. The WRCM measure was more strongly related to RF and WA than was NDRR and was a better predictor of reading comprehension (NDC). It would appear that WRCM may be a better measure of reading rate than the often used, much criticized, Nelson Denny Reading Rate. Additional research on WRCM with adults is recommended.   
Lohman, D. (2003, March). The Woodcock-Johnson III and the Cognitive Abilities Test (Form 6): A Concurrent Validity Study (click to view)
Abstract:  This study investigated the concurrent validity of the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III; Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001) and Form 6 of the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT; Lohman & Hagen, 2001). A total of 178 students in grades 2, 5, and 9 were administered 13 tests from the WJ-III and the appropriate level of the CogAT. Interbattery confirmatory factor analyses showed that the general factors on the two batteries correlated r = .82. Correlations between broad-group clusters on the WJ-III and battery-level scores on the CogAT generally supported the construct interpretations of each, but also suggested important differences in the abilities measured by both batteries.
Mayes, S. D. , Calhoun, S. L., & Lane, S. E. (2005). Diagnosing children's writing disabilities: Different tests give different results. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 101(1), 72-78
McCabe, P. P., Margolis, H., & Barenbaum, E. (2001). A comparison of Woodcock- Johnson Psycho- Educational Battery- Revised and Qualitative Reading Inventory-II instructional reading levels. Reading & Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, 17(4), 279- 289.(click to view)

Abstract: To examine whether or not norm-referenced reading tests (NRT) or informal reading inventories (IRI) yielded comparable, interchangable results, this study hypothesized that 4th grade male of below average reading ability would obtain functionally discrepant reading scores on the reading portion of the Woodcock- Johnson Psycho- Educational Battery-Revised (WJ-R), an NRT, and the Qualitative Reading Inventory-II (QRI- II), an IRI. The QRI-II and the reading subtests of the WJ-R were administered to 34 4th- grade males (mean age 10.2 yrs) reading at or below the 25th percentile on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills. Spearman rank- order correlation coefficients indicate that WJ-R reading scores and QRI-II oral instructional reading levels were moderately and significantly related. 50% of children obtained identical instructional levels on the WJ-R and QRI- II, while 50% demonstrated differences of half a year or more. For the portion of students who obtained different WJ-R and QRI-II instructional levels, WJ-R levels exceeded QRI-II levels 92.1% of the time. Implications for placing poor readers in instructional level reading materials are discussed.
McCabe, P. P., Margolis, H., & Barenbaum, E. (2001). A comparison of Woodcock- Johnson Psycho- Educational Battery- Revised and Qualitative Reading Inventory-II instructional reading levels. Reading & Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties, 17(4), 279-289.

Abstract: To examine whether or not norm-referenced reading tests (NRT) or informal reading inventories (IRI) yielded comparable, interchangable results, this study hypothesized that 4th grade male of below average reading ability would obtain functionally discrepant reading scores on the reading portion of the Woodcock- Johnson Psycho- Educational Battery-Revised (WJ-R), an NRT, and the Qualitative Reading Inventory-II (QRI- II), an IRI. The QRI-II and the reading subtests of the WJ-R were administered to 34 4th- grade males (mean age 10.2 yrs) reading at or below the 25th percentile on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills. Spearman rank- order correlation coefficients indicate that WJ-R reading scores and QRI-II oral instructional reading levels were moderately and significantly related. 50% of children obtained identical instructional levels on the WJ-R and QRI- II, while 50% demonstrated differences of half a year or more. For the portion of students who obtained different WJ-R and QRI-II instructional levels, WJ-R levels exceeded QRI-II levels 92.1% of the time. Implications for placing poor readers in instructional level reading materials are discussed.
Mockler, J. L. (2004). Predicting reading achievement in children: The significance of naming speed, phonological awareness, cognitive ability, processing speed, and neuroanatomy.Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences, 64( 9-A), 3191.

Abstract: This study investigated the relationship among behavioral and neuroanatomical predictors of reading achievement in a group of school-age children. Specifically, relationships between naming speed and other predictors of reading (i.e., phonological awareness, cognitive ability, and processing speed) were investigated to determine how these variables influence naming speed's prediction of reading achievement. In addition, this study examined specific neuroanatomical regions and their relationship to these predictors. A sample of 57 children, between the ages of 7 and 11 years, were administered three measures of naming speed (i.e., RAN Colors, Numbers, and Letters tasks), two measures of phonological awareness (i.e., the Elision and the Lindamood Auditory Conceptualization tests [LAC]), a measure of cognitive ability (Woodcock Johnson- Test of Cognitive Ability- Revised), a battery of elementary cognitive tasks (Visual Inspection Time [IT], and Simple, Choice, and Odd- Man-Out Reaction Time [RT]), and three subtests from the Woodcock- Johnson Tests of Achievement- Revised to assess reading skills and performance. In addition, all participants received a magnetic resonance image (MRI) of their brain to measure specific neuroanatomical regions, including surface area of the pars triangularis, planum temporale and parietale, Heschl's gyrus, and the corpus callosum. Volumetric measurements were also made of the anterior lobe of the cerebellum and the cerebrum. There were three major findings in this study. First, consistent with previous research, the results of this study indicate significant contributions of both naming speed and phonological awareness to the prediction of reading achievement. However, in this study, phonological awareness emerged as the strongest predictor overall, with a limited contribution from naming speed, for all of the specific reading skills assessed. Second, the results suggest that cognitive ability is an important predictor of reading achievement and may share some overlapping variance with naming speed. In addition, the relationship between naming speed and reading appears unrelated to processing speed. Finally, the neuroanatomical findings in this study suggest significant relationships among regions in the brain and predictors of reading achievement. However, it is more likely that the variability in reading skill can be better accounted for by a combination of behavioral and biological factors. Implications for future research are discussed
Norman-Prater, K. (2004). A WISC-III short form and the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities: Correlations with gifted children. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, 65(6- B), 3217.

Abstract: The overall purpose of this study was to investigate the nature of the relationship between a recently revised, multidimensional intelligence test (WJ III COG) and a short form of an older, well-  established intelligence test (WISC-III) with intellectually gifted children. As such, this study examined the implications of using a theoretically and empirically sound choice (WJ III COG) as compared to a more practical alternative (i.e., WISC-III short form); it also explored the impact of different cut- off and eligibility criteria upon eligibility decisions. Participants were solicited from a group of 75 students who had been nominated for a gifted program at a small elementary school located on the urban fringe of a mid- size city in the Midwest. Thirty- five students, ranging in age from 9 years, 2 months to 11 years, 1 month, participated in this study. The sample included 15 students who were admitted into the program and 20 students who were deemed ineligible. The WISC-III short form exhibited a positive relationship with the WJ III COG, as its FSIQ estimate correlated significantly with both the WJ III COG GIA-Std and BIA scores, accounting for approximately 33% and 35% of the variance, respectively. The eligible group performed significantly higher on the WISC- III short form than the WJ III COG, whereas the ineligible group performed consistently across all global measures of intelligence. The eligibility of 46% of the sample varied as a result of the test and restrictiveness of the cut-off criteria. More students were identified as intellectually gifted when flexible, rather than strict, cut-off criteria were used to make eligibility decisions. Moreover, the eligibility of approximately 63% of the participants varied as a result of the test and whether eligibility criteria involved general and specific intellectual abilities or solely general intellectual ability. More students were deemed eligible when general and specific intellectual abilities were considered as compared to decisions based only on general intellectual ability
Osmon, D., & Jackson, R. (2002). Inspection time and IQ: Fluid or perceptual aspects of intelligence. Intelligence , 30(2), 119- 128. (click to view)
Abstract:  Past research has found an association between inspection time (IT) and fluid intelligence using measures confounded with visual processing (e.g., Wechsler PIQ or Ravens Progressive Matrices). The present study related IT to intelligence using a measure (Woodcock- Johnson-Revised, WJ-R) that has nonconfounded factors of mental ability in order to determine whether the association is based upon fluid IQ or perceptual processes. 37 undergraduate students were given fluid, crystallized, and visual processes subtests from the Woodcock- Johnson and a visual IT task. Stepwise multiple regression and partial correlations revealed that IT was related only to fluid intelligence, supporting the notion that IT reflects some fundamental underlying aspect of intelligence such as neural processing efficiency.
Pedersen, L. L. (2005). The relationship between behavioral and performance-based measures of executive function in preschool children. Dissertation Abstracts International, 66(3), 1748.

Abstract: his study explored the relationship between parent and teacher ratings of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool Version (BRIEF-P) and performance based measures of executive function in preschool children. A sample of 93 preschool children [age range 3-4); 58% male, 42% female) was administered Concept Formation and Numbers Reversed from the Woodcock Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities - Third Edition and Visual Attention, Statue, Sentence Repetition and Verbal Fluency subtests from the NEPSY. Additionally, teacher and parent ratings on the BRIEF- P were obtained for each child participant. Regarding test performance and ratings scales based on age, Hotelling's tests were conducted and no significant differences were found. No significant differences for parent ratings based on gender were found. However, teachers were found to rate males higher than females on all Index scales and the Composite. Significant sex related differences were found in test performance of Visual Attention subtest, with females performing better than males. A Hotelling's  test was conducted to examine overall mean correlations between parent and teacher ratings. Results indicate a significant difference between parent and teacher ratings with parents reporting higher levels of problem behaviors than teachers on all three Index scales and the Composite scale. Higher than expected correlation coefficients were found between parent and teacher ratings with coefficients ranging from .322 to .427. Correlation coefficients comparing parent ratings and teacher Index and Composite ratings to test performance resulted in small to moderate negative correlations with the Flexibility Index and Verbal Fluency. Small negative correlations were found between Statue and teacher ratings on the Flexibility Index and Emerging Metacognition Index. Post hoc analysis of Clinical scale ratings revealed additional correlations. Small to moderate negative correlations were found between teacher ratings on the Shift and Plan/Organize Clinical scales and all four NEPSY subtests. Small to moderate negative correlations were found between parent ratings on the Shift and Emotional Control Clinical scales and the Visual Attention and Verbal Fluency subtests. Overall, this study suggests the amount of variance shared between test performance and behavior ratings is small, giving support to a multidimensional evaluation approach.
Rossen, E. A., Shearer, D. K., Penfield, R. D., &Kranzler, J. H. (2005). Validity of the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (CTONI). Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 23(2), 161- 172.(click to view)
Abstract.  This study examined the construct validity of the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (CTONI) in two separate investigations. The first study examined criterionrelated evidence of validity across racial/ethnic groups on the CTONI and the Woodcock- Johnson Psychoeducational Tests of Achievement (3rd edition). The second study examined the comparability of the standard and computerized forms of the CTONI. Results of the first study revealed that the CTONI overall score did not correlate significantly with reading achievement and correlated moderately with math achievement. The CTONI also showed significant racial/ethnic group differences, despite the absence of these differences on achievement. Results of the second study revealed that average scores on the standard form of the CTONI were significantly higher statistically than those on the computerized form. Correlations between raw scores on the computerized form of the CTONI and age were statistically significant, although generally low. In sum, results of this research raise concerns and questions about the validity of the CTONI. The CTONI should be used with caution, if at all, until further research is conducted.
Sherman, M. R. (2002). Structural modeling of the WAIS-R and tests of executive function under comprehensive CHC theory.Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences, 63(1-A), 87.

Abstract: Tests of executive function are frequently administered in neuropsychological assessment batteries to evaluate abilities such as organization, planning, concept formation, set shifting, and response inhibition. Although executive dysfunction is thought to cause academic and vocational difficulties, school psychologists and educational diagnosticians typically do not evaluate executive functioning as part of a standard assessment battery. Recently, several psychometric batteries purporting to measure executive processes (e.g. the Cognitive Assessment System, the NEPSY, and the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability-Third Edition) have been published. Many of the measures on these batteries are newer versions of traditional neuropsychological assessment instruments. Controversy over what these newer tests of executive functioning actually measure has arisen in the literature. The Cattell-Horn- Carroll (CHC) cross- battery approach to assessment, developed by McGrew and Flanagan, is a structured multiple intelligence theory that provides a framework to conduct psychoeducational assessments. Their approach calls for systematic administration and interpretation of various subtests from different batteries to more thoroughly and accurately assess cognitive abilities. The purpose of this study is to examine the factor structure of tests of executive function according to Comprehensive CHC theory. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Stroop Color and Word Test, the Trail Making Test, the Rey- Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, and selected subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale- Revised. Three models representing CHC classifications and the WAIS-R three factor structure were proposed for comparison. Results of the study found that the best fitting model was conceptualized using CHC classifications of both the executive function tests and the WAIS-R subtests. The results suggest that executive functions can be examined by providing content- matched control tasks; CHC theory provides a framework to develop and assess content- matched controls for executive function tasks. Implications for school psychologists and educational diagnosticians are proposed.
Titus, J. B. (2002). The prediction of cognitive ability from sensory/motor performance: Examining the role of sensory/motor performance in the Dean-Woodcock Cognitive Neuropsychology Model. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, 63((6-B)), 3058.

Abstract: The present study investigated the relationship between sensory/motor skills and cognitive abilities in psychiatric and neurologically impaired patients to determine how sensory/motor skills are associated with cognitive abilities. Previous research has demonstrated a significant relationship between performance on sensory/motor tasks and cognition but has failed to examine how well sensory/motor skills can predict specific cognitive performance. Because brain functioning is hierarchical with simpler processes being foundational to the development of more complex functions, it is likely sensory/motor skills can aid in the prediction of specific cognitive abilities. If this is true, then investigation of the relationship between sensory/motor performance and cognition should provide insight into the role of sensory/motor skills in the Dean- Woodcock Cognitive Neuropsychology Model. This study examined the relationship between scores on the Woodcock- Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability-Revised (WJ-R COG) and scores on the Dean-Woodcock Sensory and Motor Battery (D- WSMB). Participants included 458 patients referred for neuropsychological consultation with neurological and/or psychiatric diagnoses. Results indicated a significant correlation among cognitive scores and sensory/motor scores. Moreover, factor analysis revealed 7 overall factors that account for approximately 65% of the variance. These factors were identified as being thinking ability and processing speed, subcortical functioning, verbal working memory, peripheral processes, tactile- kinesthetic thinking (Gtk), visual processing, and simple sensory/motor. Integration of sensory/motor factors into the Dean- Woodcock Cognitive Neuropsychology Model revealed the significant role sensory/motor performance plays in predicting higher- order cognitive abilities. From the analysis it appeared that certain sensory/motor functions were significant contributors to the prediction of specific cognitive abilities. That is, subcortical functioning aided in the prediction of all measured areas of cognition; visual processing contributed to visual- spatial thinking, novel reasoning, and crystallized knowledge; tactile-kinesthetic thinking helped predict visual-spatial thinking, auditory processing, and crystallized knowledge; and simple sensory/motor functioning aided in the explanation of long- term storage- retrieval. These results offer a beginning point for further investigation into the relationship between specific sensory/motor skills and cognitive abilities. Research in this area can provide further insight into the functional organization of the brain and offer application to cognitive outcome in rehabilitation as well as preschool screening.
Valbuena, J. P. (2004). Concurrent validity of the ability/achievement discrepancy identified by the Bilingual Verbal Ability Score -     Woodcock Johnson-revised tests of Achievement method. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, 64(11- B), 5836.

Abstract: In 1975, Public Law 94-142, also known as The Education of All Handicapped Children Act, established the rights of the bilingual student to a nondiscriminatory assessment and called for a systematic plan to address any deficits identified by the assessment. Since that time and through the reauthorization of that law, now known as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, those charged with the evaluation of cognitive and achievement skills of children and adolescents have struggled to comply with the mandate. One of the challenges they face is the dearth of well designed, reliable and valid instruments to conduct evaluations of the growing number of bilingual, limited English proficient students. The Bilingual Verbal Ability Tests are purported to be unique measures of general cognitive ability in that they incorporate skills in both English and a second language. The current study attempted to assess the validity of the ability/achievement discrepancy identified by the Bilingual Verbal Ability Score/Woodcock- Johnson - Revised Tests of Achievement method. This method compares predicted ability, estimated with the Bilingual Verbal Ability Score, with actual ability as measured by the Woodcock-Johnson -  Revised Tests of Achievement. The task is complicated by the fact that no other instrument has been designed to include the impact of bilingual skills on cognitive abilities. The ability/achievement discrepancy identified by the more traditional Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - III/Wechsler Individual Achievement Test method was used as the criterion measure. The most important outcome of the current study was observed among subjects whose second language skills did not significantly impact their BVA score. Within that group, for subtests measuring reading skills and comprehension, the study revealed moderate to high correlations between the levels of discrepancy identified by the two methods. The impact of these results is limited by the small, skewed sample but suggests that the usefulness of the information provided by the Bilingual Verbal Ability Tests warrants its inclusion in the standard battery of instruments administered in the course of an assessment of learning abilities.