2. Master Flynn Effect reference list
Flynn Effect references 02-10-15 (v 13)
[For use in the “Flynn Effect Archive Project
at the Intellectual Competence and Death Penalty (ICDP) blog:
[references in bold are new or references or articles added during this revision:]
Click on author link to access articles.
AAIDD (2010).  Intellectual disability:  Definition, classification and systems of supports.  Washington, DC:  Author.
Ang, S. A., Rodgers, Wanstrom, L. (2010).  The Flynn Effect within subgroups in the U.S:  Gender, race, income, education, and urbanization differences in NLSY- Children data.  Intelligence, 38. 367- 384.
Armstrong, E. L. & Woodley, M. A. (2014).  The rule-dependence model explains the commonalities between theFlynn effect and IQ gains via retesting.  Learning and Individual Differences, 29, 41-49.
Ashton, M. (2008).  Review of What is intelligence? Beyond the Flynn effect. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(5), 1289-1291.
Bakheit, S. F. A., Barakat, S. M. R., & Lynn, R. (2014). A Flynn effect among deaf boys in Saudi Arabia. Intelligence, 44, 75- 77.
Batterjee, A. A., Khaleefa, O., Ali, K., & Lynn, R. (2013).  An increase in intelligence in Saudi Arabia, 1977- 2010.  Intelligence, 41(2), 91-93.
Baxendale, S. (2010). The Flynn effect and memory function. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 32(7), 699-703.
Beaujean, A. A., & Osterlind, S. J. (2008). Using item response theory to assess the Flynn Effect in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 79 Children and Young Adults Data. Intelligence, 36(5), 455-463.
Beaujean, A. A., & Sheng, Y. Y. (2010). Examining the Flynn Effect in the General Social Survey Vocabulary test using item response theory. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(3), 294-298.
Benson, N., Beaujean, A. A., & Taub, G. E. (2015). Using score equating and measurement invariance to examine the Flynn effect in the Wechsler adult intelligence scale. Multivariate behavioral research, 50(4), 398-415.
Blair, C. (2006). How similar are fluid cognition and general intelligence? A developmental neuroscience perspective on fluid cognition as an aspect of human cognitive ability. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 29(2), 109+.
Blair, C., Gamson, D., Thorne, S., & Baker, D. (2005).  Rising mean IQ: Cognitive demand of mathematics education for young children, population exposure to formal schooling, and the neurobiology of the prefrontal cortex.  Intelligence, 33(1), 93- 106.
Bocerean, C., Fischer, J. P., & Flieller, A. (2003). Long-term comparison (1921- 2001) of numerical knowledge in three to five- and-a-half year- old children. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 18(4), 405-424.
Bradmetz, J., & Mathy, F. (2006).  An estimate of the Flynn Effect: Changes in IQ and subtest gains of 10-yr-old French children between 1965 and 1988. Psychological Reports, 99(3), 743-746.
Breslau, N., Dickens, W. T., Flynn, J. R., Peterson, E. L., & Lucia, V. C. (2006). Low birth weight and social disadvantage: Tracking their relationship with children's IQ during the period of school attendance. Intelligence, 34(4), 351-362.
Brouwers, S. A., VandeVijver, F. J. R., & VanHemert, D. A. (2009). Variation in Raven's Progressive Matrices scores across time and place. Learning and Individual Differences, 19(3), 330- 338.
Ceci, S. J., & Kanaya, T. (2010). ''Apples and Oranges Are Both Round'': Furthering the Discussion on the Flynn Effect. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 28(5), 441- 447.
Ceci, S.J., Scullin, M., & Kanaya, T. (2003).  The difficulty of basing death penalty eligibility on IQ cutoff scores for Mental Retardation.  Ethics, & Behavior, 13(1), 11- 17.
Clarke, R. P. (2015). Rising–falling mercury pollution causing the rising–falling IQ of the Lynn–Flynn effect, as predicted by the antiinnatia theory of autism and IQ. Personality and Individual Differences, 82, 46-51.
Cocodia, E. A., Kim, J. S., Shin, H. S., Kim, J. W., Ee, J., Wee, M. S. W., & Howard, R. W. (2003). Evidence that rising population intelligence is impacting in formal education. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(4), 797- 810.
Colom, R., Juan-Espinosa, M., & Garcia, L. F. (2001). The secular increase in test scores is a ''Jensen effect''. Personality and Individual Differences, 30(4), 553-559.
Colom, R., Lluis-Font, J., & Andres- Pueyo, A (2005). The generational intelligence gains are caused by decreasing variance in the lower half of the distribution: Supporting evidence for the nutrition hypothesis.  Intelligence, 33 (1), 83- 91.
Cunningham, M. D., & Tasse, M. J. (2010). Looking to Science Rather Than Convention in Adjusting IQ Scores When Death Is at Issue. Professional Psychology Research and Practice, 41(5), 413-419.
Daley, T. C., Whaley, S. E., Sigman, M. D., Espinosa, M., & Neumann, C. (2003).  IQ on the rise:  The Flynn Effect in rural Kenyan children.  Psychological Science, 14(3), 215-219.
de Kort,J., Dolan, C. V., Kan, K-J., van Beijsterveldt, C., Bartels, M., & Boomsma, D. I. (2014).  Can GE- covariance originating in phenotype to environment transmission account of the Flynn Effect?  Journal of Intelligence, 2, 82-105.
Dickens, W. T., & Flynn, J. R. (2001). Heritability estimates versus large environmental effects: The IQ paradox resolved. Psychological Review, 108(2), 346- 369.
Dickens, W. T., & Flynn, J. R. (2006a). Black Americans reduce the racial IQ gap:  Evidence from standardization samples. Psychological Science, 17(10), 913-920.
Dickens, W. T., & Flynn, J. R. (2006b). Common ground and differences. Psychological Science, 17(10), 923- 924.
Dickinson, M. D., & Hiscock, M. (2010). Age-related IQ decline is reduced markedly after adjustment for the Flynn effect. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 32(8), 865- 870.
Dickinson, M. D., & Hiscock, M. (2011).  The Flynn Effect in neuropsychological assessment.  Applied Neuropsychology,18, 136–142.
Dutton, E., & Lynn, R. (2013). A negative Flynn effect in Finland, 1997–2009. Intelligence, 41(6), 817- 820.
Dutton, E., & Lynn, R. (2015). A negative Flynn effect in France, 1999 to 2008–9. Intelligence, 51, 67-70.
Fitzgerald, S., Gray, N. S., & Snowden, R. J. (2007). A comparison of WAIS-R and WAIS- III in the lower IQ range: Implications for learning disability diagnosis. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 20, 323-330.
Flieller, A. (1999).  Comparison of the development of formal thought in adolescent cohorts aged 10 to 15 y ears (1967-  1996 and 1972- 1993).  Developmental Psychology, 35, (4), 1048-1058.
Fletcher, J. M., Stuebing, K. K., & Hughes, L. C. (2010). IQ Scores Should Be Corrected for the Flynn Effect in High- Stakes Decisions. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 28(5), 469-473.
Flynn, J. R. (1984a). IQ gains and the Binet decrements. Journal of Educational Measurement, 21, 283-290.
Flynn, J. R. (1984b). The mean IQ of Americans: Massive gains 1932 to 1978. Psychological Bulletin, 95, 29-51.
Flynn, J. R. (1985). Wechsler Intelligence Tests:  Do we really have a criterion of mental retardation? American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 90(3), 236- 244.
Flynn, J. R. (1987). Massive IQ gains in 14 nations: What IQ tests really measure. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 171-  191.
Flynn, J. R. (1998a).IQ gains over time: Toward finding the cause. In U. Neisser (Ed.), The rising curve: Long- term gains in IQ and related measures (pp. 25-66). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Flynn, J. R. (1998b).  Israeli military IQ tests: Gender differences small; IQ gains large. Journal of Biosocial Science, 30, 541- 553.
Flynn, J. R. (1998c).WAIS-III and WISC-III: IQ gains in the United States from 1972 to 1995; how to compensate for obsolete norms. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 86, 1231- 1239.
Flynn, J. R. (1999).  Searching for justice: The discovery of IQ gains over time. American Psychologist, 54(1), 5- 20.
Flynn, J. R. (2000). The hidden history of IQ and special education-Can the problems be solved? Psychology Public Policy and Law, 6(1), 191- 198.
Flynn, J. R. (2003). Movies about intelligence: The limitations of g. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(3), 95-99.
Flynn, J. R. (2006a). Tethering the elephant: Capital cases, IQ, and the Flynn effect. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 12, 170-189.
Flynn, J. R. (2006b). Towards a theory of intelligence beyond g. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 29(2), 132+.
Flynn, J. R. (2007a). What is intelligence? Beyond the Flynn Effect.  New York: Cambridge University Press.
Flynn, J. R. (2007b). Capital offenders and the death sentence: A scandal that must be addressed. Psychology in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 32(3), 3-7.
Flynn, J. R. (2009).  The WAIS-III and WAIS-IV:  Daubert motions favor the certainly false over the approximately true.  Applied Neuropsychology, 16, 98- 104.
Flynn, J. R. (2010a).  The spectacles through which I see race and IQ debate.  Intelligence, 38, 363-366.
Flynn, J. R. (2010b).  Problems with IQ gains: The huge Vocabulary gap.  Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 28 (5),412-433.
Flynn, J. R. (2013). The “Flynn Effect” and Flynn’s paradox. Intelligence, 41(6), 851-  857.
Flynn, J. R., te Nijenhuis, J., & Metzen, D. (2014). Theg beyond Spearman's g: Flynn's paradoxes resolved using four exploratory meta- analyses. Intelligence, 44, 1-10.
Flynn, J. R., & Rossi-Casé, L. (2012).  IQ gains in Argentina between 1964 and 1998.  Intelligence, 40, 145-150.
Flynn, J. R., & Weiss, L. (2007).  American IQ gains from 1932 to 2002:  The WISC subtests and educational progress.  International Journal of Testing, 7(2), 209-224.
Flynn, J. R., & Widaman, K. F. (2008). The Flynn effect and the shadow of the past: Mental retardation and the indefensible and indispensible role of IQ. In L. M. Glidden (Ed.), International Review of Mental Retardation (Vol. 35, pp. 121-149). Boston: Elsevier.
Fox, M. C., & Mitchum, A. L. (2012, Oct. 1). A knowledge-based theory of rising scores on “culture- free” tests. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General.  Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0030155.
Frumkin, B. (2006).  Challenging expert testimony on intelligence and mental retardation.  The Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 34, 51- 71.
Gauvain, M., & Munroe, R. L. (2009).  Contributions of societal modernity to cognitive development:  A comparison of four cultures. Child Development, 80(6), 1628–1642.
Gobet, F., Campitelli, G., & Waters, A. J. (2002). Rise of human intelligence: Comments on Howard (1999). Intelligence, 30(4), 303- 311.
Greenspan, S. (2006). Issues in the use of the "Flynn effect" to adjust IQ scores when diagnosing MR. Psychology in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 31(3), 3-7.
Greenspan, S. (2007). Flynn-adjustment is a matter of basic fairness: Response to Roger B. Moore, Jr. Psychology in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 32(3), 7-8.
Gresham, F. (2009).  Interpretation of Intelligence Test Scores in Atkins Cases: Conceptual and Psychometric Issues.  Applied Neuropsychology, 16, 91–97.
Greshman, F., & Reschly, D. J. (2011).  Standard of practice and Flynn effect testimony in death penalty cases.  Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 49(3), 131-140.
Hagen, J. (2007).  The label mental retardation involves more than an IQ score:  A commentary on Kanaya and Ceci (2007).  Child Development Perspectives,1(1), 60-  61.
Hagan, L. D., Drogin, E. Y., & Guilmette, T. J. (2008). Adjusting IQ scores for the Flynn effect: Consistent with the standard of practice? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39, 619-625.
Hagan, L. D., Drogin, E. Y., & Guilmette, T. J. (2010a). IQ Scores Should Not Be Adjusted for the Flynn Effect in Capital Punishment Cases. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 28(5), 474- 476.
Hagan, L. D., Drogin, E. Y., & Guilmette, T. J. (2010b). Science Rather Than Advocacy When Reporting IQ Scores. Professional Psychology Research and Practice, 41(5), 420- 423.
Hiscock, M. (2007). The Flynn effect and its relevance to neuropsychology. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 29(5), 514- 529.
Howard, R. W. (1999). Preliminary real- world evidence that average human intelligence really is rising. Intelligence, 27(3), 235- 250.
Howard, R. W. (2001). Searching the real world for signs of rising population intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 30( 6), 1039- 1058.
Juan-Espinosa, M., Cuevas, L., Escorial, S., & Garcia, L. F. (2006). The differentiation hypothesis and the Flynn effect. Psicothema, 18(2), 284- 287.
Kanaya,T., Ceci,S., & Scullin, M. H. (2005).  Age differences within secular IQ trends: An individual growth modeling approach. Intelligence, 33, 613–621.
Kanaya, T., Ceci, S. J (2007a).  Are all IQ scores created equal?  The differential costs of IQ cutoff scores for at- risk children.   Child Development Perspectives,1(1), 52-56.
Kanaya, T., Ceci, S. J (2007b).  Mental retardation diagnosis and the Flynn Effect: General intelligence, adaptive behavior, and context. Child Development Perspectives,1(1), 62-63
Kanaya, T., Ceci, S. J (2011).  The Flynn Effect in the WISC Subtests Among School Children Tested for Special Education Services.  Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 29(2), 125-136.
Kanaya, T., & Ceci, S. (2012). The Impact of the Flynn Effect on LD Diagnoses in Special Education. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45(4), 319-326.
Kanaya, T., Ceci, S. J., & Scullin, M. H. (2003). The rise and fall of IQ in special ed: Historical trends and their implications. Journal of School Psychology, 41(6), 453-465.
Kanaya, T., Scullin, M. H., & Ceci, S. J. (2003). The Flynn effect and US policies: The impact of rising IQ scores on American Society via mental retardation diagnoses. American Psychologist, 58(10), 778-790.
Kane, H. D. (2000). A secular decline in Spearman's g: evidence from the WAIS, WAIS- R and WAIS-III. Personality and Individual Differences, 29(3), 561-566.
Kane, H., & Oakland, T. D. (2000). Secular declines in Spearman's g: Some evidence from the United States. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 161(3), 337-345.
Kaufman, A. S. (2010a). ''In What Way Are Apples and Oranges Alike?'' A Critique of Flynn's Interpretation of the Flynn Effect. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 28(5), 382-398.
Kaufman, A. S. (2010b). Looking Through Flynn's Rose-Colored Scientific Spectacles. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 28(5), 494- 505.
Kaufman, A. S., Dillon, T., & Kirsch, J. W. (2013). “A beautiful theory, killed by a nasty, ugly little fact”. PsycCRITIQUES.
Kaufman, K., & Weiss, L. (2010).  Guest Editors Introduction to the Special Issue of JPA on the Flynn Effect.  Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 28 (5), 379-  381.
Khaleefa, O., Abdelwahid, S. B., Abdulradi, F., & Lynn, R. (2008). The increase of intelligence in Sudan 1964- 2006. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(5), 412-  413.
Khaleefa, O., Sulman, A., & Lynn, R. J. (2009).  An increase in intelligence in Sudan, 1987- 2007. Journal of Biosocial Science, 41(2), 279- 283.
Lanfranchi, S., & Carretti, B. (2012).  The increase in Colored Progressive Matrices test performance in individuals with Down Syndrome:  A qualitative and quantitative review.  Journal of Cognitive Education and Psychology, 11(2), 143- 158.
Liu, J., Yang, H., Tunong, C., & Lynn, R. (2012).  An increase of intelligence measured by the WPPSI in China, 1984–2006. Intelligence, 40, 139–144.
Light, M. L., & Chambers, W. R. (1958). A comparison of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and Wechsler- Bellevue II with mental defectives.  American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 62, 878- 881.
Loehlin, J. C. (1997). Dysgenesis and IQ: What evidence is relevant? American Psychologist, 52(11), 1236- 1239.
Lynn, R. (1977).  Selective emigration and the decline of intelligence in Scotland. Biodemography and Social Biology, 24(3), 173-182.
Lynn, R. (1983). IQ in Japan and the United States shows a growing disparity. Nature, 306, 291- 292.
Lynn, R. (1987).  Japan:  Land of the Rising IQ:  A reply to Flynn. Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 40, 464- 468.
Lynn, R. (1989). A nutrition theory of the secular increase in intelligence: Positive correlations between height, head size, and IQ. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 59, 372-377.
Lynn, R. (1990). The role of nutrition in secular increases in intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 273- 285.
Lynn, R. (1992). Does Spearman’s g decline at high IQ levels? Journal of Genetic Psychology, 153(2), 229-230.
Lynn, R. (2009).What has caused the Flynn effect? Secular increases in the Development Quotients of infants. Intelligence,37(1),16-24
Lynn, R. (2009). Fluid intelligence but not vocabulary has increased in Britain, 1979–2008. Intelligence, 37(3), 249- 255.
Lynn, R. (2013).  Who discovered the Flynn Effect?  A review of early studies of the secular increase in intelligence, Intelligence, in press.
Lynn, R., & Cooper, C. (1993).  A secular decline in Spearman’s g in France.  Learning and Individual Differences, 5(1), 43- 48.
Lynn, R., & Cooper, C. (1994).  A secular decline in Spearman’s g in Japan.  Current Psychology, 13(1), 3-9.
Lynn, R. (1998). In support of the nutrition theory. In Ulric Neisser (Ed.), The rising curve: Long- term gains in IQ and related measures (pp. 207-218). Washington DC: American Psychological Association.
Lynn, R., & Hampson, S. (1986). The rise of national intelligence: Evidence from Britain, Japan and the U.S.A. Personality and Individual Differences, 7, 23-32.
Lynn, R., & Harvey, J. (2008).  The decline of the world’s IQ. Intelligence, 36(2), 112-120.
Lynn, R., & Pagliari, C. (1994) The intelligence of American children is still rising.  Journal of Biosocial Science, 26(1), 65- 67.
Lynn, R., & Meisenberg, G. (2010).  The average IQ of sub-Saharan Africans: Comments on Wicherts, Dolan, and van der Maas.  Intelligence, 38, 21–29.
McGrew, K. S. (2010). The Flynn Effect and Its Critics: Rusty Linchpins and ''Lookin' for g and Gf in Some of the Wrong Places''. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 28(5), 448-468.
McGrew, K. (2015).  Norm obsolescence:  The Flynn Effect.  In Polloway, E. (Ed.),  The death penalty and intellectual disability (pp.155-169) Washington, DC:  American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.
McVaugh, G. S., & Cunningham, M. D. (2009). Atkins v. Virginia: Implications and recommendations for forensic practice.  The Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 37, 131- 187.
Meisenberg, G., & Woodley, M. A. (2013). Are cognitive differences between countries diminishing? Evidence from TIMSS and PISA. Intelligence, 41(6), 808- 816.
Mingroni, M. A. (2004).  The secular rise in IQ: Giving heterosis a closer look.  Intelligence, 32, 65–83.
Mingroni, M. A. (2007). Resolving the IQ paradox: Heterosis as a cause of the Flynn effect and other trends. Psychological Review, 114(3), 806-829. [Correction]
Mingroni, M. A. (2014).  Future efforts in Flynn Effect research:  Balancing reductionism with holism. Journal of Intelligence, 2,122-155.
Moore, R. B. (2006). Letter to the Editor: Modification of individual’s IQ scores is not acceptable professional practice. Psychology in Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 32(3), 11- 12.
Morgan, G. B. & Beaujean, A. A (2014).  An investigation of growth mixture models for studying the Flynn Effect.  Journal of Intelligence, 2,156-179.
Must, O., te Nijenhuis, J., Must, A., & A. van Vianen (2009).  Comparability of IQ scores over time.  Intelligence, 37, 25–33.
Must, O., Must, A., & Raudik, V. (2003). The secular rise in IQs: In Estonia, the Flynn effect is not a Jensen effect. Intelligence, 31(5), 461- 471.
Must, O., & Must, A. (2013). Changes in test-taking patterns over time. Intelligence, 41(6), 780-790.
Nettelbeck, T., & Wilson, C. (2004). The Flynn effect: Smarter not faster. Intelligence, 32(1), 85-93.
Nettelbeck, T. (2014). Smarter but slower? A comment on Woodley, te Nijenhuis & Murphy (2013). Intelligence, 42, 1-4.
te Nijenhuis, J. T. (2013). The Flynn Effect, group differences, and g loadings.  Personality and Individual Differences, 55, 224-228.
te Nijenhuis, J. T.,  Cho, S. H., Murphy, R., Lee., K. H. (2012).   The Flynn effect in Korea: Large gains.  Personality and Individual Differences, 53 (2), 147–151
te Nijenhuis, J. T., Murphy, R., & van Eeden, R. (2011). The Flynn effect in South Africa. Intelligence, 39(6), 456- 467.
te Nijenhuis, J. T., & van der Flier, H. (2007). The secular rise in IQs in the Netherlands: Is the Flynn effect on g? Personality and Individual Differences, 43(5), 1259-1265.
te Nijenhuis, J. T., & van der Flier, H. (2013).  Is the Flynn effect on g?  A meta- analysis.  Intelligence, 41, 802- 807.
Nijman, E. E., Scheirs, J. G. M., Prinsen, M. J. H., Abbink, C. D., & Blok, J. B. (2010). Exploring the Flynn effect in mentally retarded adults by using a nonverbal intelligence test for children. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31(6), 1404- 1411.
Neisser, U. (1998). The rising curve: Long-term gains in IQ and related measures. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. [Note.  TOC and editors introductory chapter available by clicking here].
Oesterdiekhoff, G. W.  (2012).  Was pre-modern man a child?  The quintessence of the psychometric and developmental approaches, Intelligence, 40, 470-478.
Pietschnig, J., & Gittler, G. (2015). A reversal of the Flynn effect for spatial perception in German- speaking countries: Evidence from a cross-temporal IRT-based meta-analysis (1977–2014). Intelligence, 53, 145-153.
Pietschnig, J., Tran, U. S., & Voracek, M. (2013). Item-response theory modeling of IQ gains (the Flynn effect) on crystallized intelligence: Rodgers' hypothesis yes, Brand's hypothesis perhaps. Intelligence, 41(6), 791-801.
Pietschnig, J., & Voracek, M. (2015). One Century of Global IQ Gains A Formal Meta- Analysis of the Flynn Effect (1909–2013). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10(3), 282-306.
Pietschnig, J, Voracek, M, & Formann, A. K. (2010).  Pervasiveness of the IQ rise:  A cross- termporal meta- analysis.  PloS One, 5 (12).
Pietschnig, J, Voracek, M., & Formann, A. K. (2011).  Female Flynn effects:  No sex differences in generational IQ gains. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 759-762.
Pullmann, H., Allik, J., & Lynn, R. (2004).   The growth of IQ among Estonian school children from ages 7 to 19.  Journal of Biosocial Science, 36(6), 735-740.
Resing, W. C., & Tunteler, E. (2007).  Children becoming more intelligent: Can the Flynn effect be generalized to other child intelligence tests? International Journal of Testing, 7(2), 191-208.
Reynolds, C. R., Niland, J., Wright, J. E., & Rosenn, M. (2010). Failure to Apply the Flynn Correction in Death Penalty Litigation: Standard Practice of Today Maybe, but Certainly Malpractice of Tomorrow. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 28(5), 477-481.
Rindermann, H., & te Nijenhuis, J. (2012).  Intelligence in Bali — A case study on estimating mean IQ for a population using various corrections based on theory and empirical findings.  Intelligence, 40, 395-400.
Rindermann, H., & Thompson, J. (2013). Ability rise in NAEP and narrowing ethnic gaps?. Intelligence, 41(6), 821- 831.
Rindermann, Schott, & Baumeister (2013).  Flynn effect in Turkey:  A comment on Kagitcibasi and Biricik (2011), Intelligence, 41, 178- 180.
Rodgers, J. L., & Wanstrom, L. (2007). Identification of a Flynn effect in the NLSY: Moving from the center to the boundaries. Intelligence, 35(2), 187-196.
Rodgers, J. L. (1999). A critique of the Flynn Effect: Massive IQ gains, methodological artifacts, or both? Intelligence, 26(4), 337-356.
Rodgers, J. L. (2014). Are birth order effects on intelligence really Flynn Effects? Reinterpreting Belmont and Marolla 40years later. Intelligence, 42, 128-133.
Rodgers, J. L. (2014). Methodological  issues associated with studying the Flynn Effect:  Exploratory and confirmatory efforts in the past, present, and future.  Journal of Intelligence, 2, 111-120.
Roivainen, E.  (2012).  Economic, educational, and IQ gains in eastern Germany 1990–2006.  Intelligence, 40, 571–575.
Roivainen, E. (2014). Changes in Word Usage Frequency May Hamper Intergenerational Comparisons of Vocabulary Skills: An Ngram Analysis of Wordsum, WAIS, and WISC Test Items. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment,32(1), 83–87
Ronnlund, M., Carlstedt, Blomstedt, Nilsson, & Weinehall (2013).  Secular trends in cognitive test performance: Swedish conscript data 1970- 1993, Intelligence, 41(1), 19- 24.
Ronnlund, M., & Nilsson, L. G. (2008). The magnitude, generality, and determinants of Flynn effects on forms of declarative memory and visuospatial ability: Time-sequential analyses of data from a Swedish cohort study. Intelligence, 36(3), 192-209.
Ronnlund, M., & Nilsson, L. G. (2009). Flynn effects on sub-factors of episodic and semantic memory: Parallel gains over time and the same set of determining factors. Neuropsychologia, 47(11), 2174-2180.
Rowe, D. C., & Rodgers, J. L. (2002).  Expanding variance and the case of historical changes in IQ means:  A critique of Dickens and Flynn (2001).  Psychological Review, 109(4), 759–763.
Rushton, J. P., & Jensen, A. R. (2006). The totality of available evidence shows the race IQ gap still remains. Psychological Science, 17(10), 921-922.
Rushton, J. P., & Jensen, A. R. (2010).  The rise and fall of the Flynn Effect as a reason to expect a narrowing of the Black–White IQ gap? Intelligence, 38 (2), 213- 219.
Russell, E. (2007).  Commentary: The Flynn effect revisited. Applied Neuropsychology, 14(4), 262- 266
Russell, E. (2010).  Commentary:  The “obsolescence” of assessment procedures.  Applied Neuropsychology, 17, 60-67
Sanborn, K. J., Truscott, S. D., Phelps, L., & McDougal, J. L. (2003). Does the Flynn Effect differ by IQ level in samples of students classified as learning disabled? Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 21(2), 145-159.
Salthouse, T. A. (2015). Implications of the Flynn effect for age–cognition relations. Intelligence, 48, 51-57.
Scullin, M. H. (2006). Large state-level fluctuations in mental retardation classifications related to introduction of renormed intelligence test. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 111, 322- 335.
Senechal, C., Larivee, S., Audy, P., & Engelbert, R. (2007).  The Flynn effect and mental retardation. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 48(4), 256-270.
Shaughnessy , M. F. (2012).  An interview with Jim Flynn about the Flynn Effect.   North American Journal of Psychology, 14(1), 25- 38.
Shayer, M. (2008).  Intelligence for education:   As described by Piage tand measured by psychometrics.  British Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 1–29.
Shayer, M., & Ginsburg, D. (2009). Thirty years on-a large anti-Flynn effect? (II): 13-  and 14-year- olds. Piagetian tests of formal operations norms 1976- 2006/7. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 409-418.
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